CDC twenty four seven. The overall PPR vaccination cost per animal was estimated as 0.28 USD. Wickham H. Ggplot2: Elegant Graphics for Data Analysis. Note 1: The CDC Vaccine Price Lists posted on this website provide current vaccine contract prices and list the private sector vaccine prices for general information. Seventy-five cell passages were performed on Vero cells to produce the attenuated vaccine strain. The model ran for a set of parameters to simulate the equivalent of 100 years, with a time step of 1 day. 37–41%) (40). « Back to Vaccines For Children program « Back to Immunization Managers Home page Prices last reviewed/updated: September 1, 2020 Note 1: The CDC Vaccine Price Lists posted on this website provide current vaccine contract prices and list the private sector vaccine prices for general information. Consequently, identified animals are also vaccinated ones. Available online at: http://books.google.com/books?id=TRXrMWY_i2IC. Prev Vet Med. Goldstein E, Apolloni A, Lewis B, Miller JC, Macauley M, Eubank S, et al. 21. This condition can be expressed mathematically as: The maximal cost depends on the fraction of seropositive as well as the fraction of total wasted vaccine. On the other hand, population renewal sustains endemicity of the virus. It may not have been peer reviewed. The PPR Global Strategy for the Control and Eradication (GSCE) is composed of 4 necessary steps: 1-Assessment, 2-Control, 3-Eradication, and 4-Post-eradication follow-up (11). doi: 10.1007/s00705-016-3009-2, 16. Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is a viral infectious disease affecting domestic (goats and sheep) and small wild ruminants (1, 2). OIE. In 2013, a PPR vaccine bank for Africa was established for the provision of high quality PPR vaccines to eligible African countries. For adults the seroprevalence is constant (43%, C.I. Front. 39. As reported in Supplementary Table 2, we found that the median value of R0 is around 2.9 (95% C.I. Finally, Figure 5D shows the year-cumulative number of PPR-related deaths. For example, the vaccine for RVF or the vaccine for hydatid vaccine could be combined with vaccines for the current global strategy for the control and eradication of PPR . Solid lines indicate the end/beginning of the year, while dashed line indicates Tabaski date. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. This is an effect of the previous mass vaccination campaign. To receive email updates about this page, enter your email address: Note 2: The CDC price list does not represent all possible routinely recommended vaccine presentations available to providers in the United States. The PPR vaccine bank mechanism allows high-quality vaccines complying with OIE international standards to be delivered to countries in a timely manner. AE, YK, and RL supervised the data collection and performed the preliminary data analysis. Because these symptoms are similar to those of other diseases such as rinderpest, pasteurellosis, and bluetongue (7), the clinical diagnosis is taken as provisional until confirmed by a laboratory. In this analysis, we focus on direct benefits coming from the avoided losses due to PPR related deaths (BS) and avoided treatment expenses (BM) to assess the economic impact of the vaccination. 40. Figure 3. For the SM strategy, we notice that during the second period the vaccination wastage widely changes, due to switch from mass to targeted vaccination. doi: 10.1201/b14835, 42. doi: 10.1177/0272989X02239651, 38. Mauritania geographical extension and the distribution of supporting infrastructure for maintaining the vaccine cold chain, constrain the number and the duration of field missions by Veterinary Services. Random strategies (SR) are the less effective in terms of the number of vaccine doses distributed (Q), wastage (W), and reduction of PPR-related deaths, whilst the GSCE strategies are, in the long term, the most effective in terms of cases and deaths reduction. All authors listed have made a substantial, direct and intellectual contribution to the work, and approved it for publication. PLoS ONE. In Mauritania these months correspond to the months of December and March. Number and percentage (in brackets) of seropositive PPR animals in each age group, by species. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0190296, 33. In our model we have considered that all neighboring countries have implemented the same vaccination strategy and the same vaccination coverage rate. At the equilibrium, we estimated, for each age-group the number of recovered animals (Ra) and the total number of deaths caused by the infection in the last year (D) among the infected animals in the last year (Z). The disease is endemic in several parts of Asia and Africa and causes huge losses. The epidemics show a recurrent pattern with a peak of new infections occurring every year during the first few months, mostly among young animals. (2018) 13:e0190296. To be effective, GSCE should be tailored to country epidemiological situation and take account of small ruminants production system dynamics. The transmission parameters β1, β0 and the fatality rates pinf, p0, for animals of age 0–3 months and 3–12 months, respectively, were estimated through calibration by fitting the model to serological and PPR-related death data in Tables 2, 3 and choosing the set of parameters minimizing the Deviance Information Criterion (DIC) value (49). We indicated these doses as wasted doses (W). At each time, each age class could change due to death, birth, aging, sale, and purchase of animals. El Arbi AS. For example, the authors of Fournié et al. Intersection between the line and the shaded area indicate the maximum affordable screening cost for the period. PPR vaccine (Living) is a preparation derived from cell cultures infected with attenuated Sungri/96 strain of PPR virus. After this period, animals become fully susceptible to PPR (27, 28) thus ensuring the regular re-introduction in the population of fully susceptible animals that could feed the disease cycle (29). In each age-group, susceptible animals (S) move to the latent state (E) after effective contacts with infectious animals (I), and subsequently become infectious (I). The “identification and screening” procedure is economically advantageous until its cost is < the cost of vaccinating all animals (cV*Q). Pictorial representation of the epidemiological model for the first and i-th age group. doi: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2010.08.002. From this page, you can get to all of the vaccines licensed in the US. Taylor & Francis (1995). Figure 2. PNEUMOCOCCAL VACCINE, POLYVALENT (NEU mo KOK al vak SEEN, pol ee VEY luhnt) is a vaccine to prevent pneumococcus bacteria infection. (2014). Because of this, PPR vaccination should be done during a joint campaign against other viruses and bacteria. 3. The random (not targeted) strategies are the most expensive in terms of vaccine-administration costs and vaccine wastage: the more vaccine doses are distributed randomly, the more are wasted. The cost per vaccine dose (one dose is required per animal) is assumed to be US$0.10 based on current commercial prices in Africa, giving a total vaccine cost of US$246.8 million. (2010) 7:755–64. • Targeted scenario (ST): all animals between 4 and 12 months of age are vaccinated. Biokemistri. Figure 1. (2015) 181:90–106. We sampled from the posterior distributions of the parameters to evaluate the basic reproductive ratio R0 using the Next Generation Approach as in Diekmann et al. (2014) 61:411–24. Small ruminants vaccination campaigns against PPR are implemented since 2008 but the coverage rate remains low (ranging from 2 to 8% between 2008 and 2010; and in 2018 reaching 15.6% of the population) (10). The BCR estimated for GSCE strategies in our model varies between 19.4 and 24.9 depending on the month of implementation. R Core Team. During the same year, a retrospective study was conducted to retrieve information on the impact of PPR outbreaks, number of cases and deaths, in the 12 previous months. Prev Vet Med. A number of vaccines are used to prevent disease in goats. For all strategies, benefits from vaccination in March are immediately evident. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. For each animal, information about species, sex, and age (based on teeth counting) were also collected. Elements in Equations (1a) and (1b) are the matrix elements for the within-young (both i,j ≤ 3) and within-old (both i,j > 3) groups, respectively, and correspond to the block diagonal elements of the transmission matrix. Only two infectious diseases, smallpox in humans and rinderpest in cattle, have been eradicated so far. X-axes correspond to the vaccine wastage, while y axis corresponds to maximal screening cost, zero value indicating that the procedure is not convenient. Zinsstag J, Dürr S, Penny MA, Mindekem R, Roth F, Menendez Gonzalez S, et al. doi: 10.1111/tbed.12052, PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar, 2. A way to reduce vaccination costs is to reduce vaccine wastage (W), consequently administering only the effective number of doses (E). Cumulative cost and benefit for each strategy (row) and month of vaccination. Central point vaccination was the most cost-effective vaccination strategy when >88% of the dog population was confined. View all
The gap in cases and deaths averted between the SR and the GSCE strategy is that of a few million at the end (around 10 for the infections, and 3 for deaths). A thermostable presentation of PPR vaccine (Nigeria 75/1) was adopted using a combination of TD and LS stabilizers by Mariner and co workers. (29, 32) for sub-Saharan Africa herds, the immunity coverage is strongly dependent on the month of vaccination. Our model predicts a value of R0 around 2.9, consequently the PVIR threshold is fixed around 66.6% a value in-between the GSCE PVIR estimate (70%) and those predicted by Fournié et al. In the absence of a vaccine the best way to fight it is by detecting infected cases early and isolate them to prevent its spread. Consequently, the fraction of animals that should be vaccinated to reach the herd immunity threshold (HIT = 1 − 1/R0) is around 66% (95% C.I 64 and 71%). J R Soc Interface. This work was funded by the European Projects VMERGE: European Union Grant FP7-613996 and PALEBLU: E.C. GSCE-vaccination appears to be the most effective strategy in terms of deaths and case reduction. Furthermore, more animals, in better health, can be sold at markets increasing household income and providing some means to face emergency. Based on the number of sheep and goats targeted for vaccination against PPR which was 20,150,000, the unit cost of service delivery of the vaccine per animal was USD 0.14 per animal whereas the estimated cost of a dose of PPR vaccine was USD 0.12. Due to this, the number of cases or the number of deaths related to PPR could have been easily miscalculated. CGIAR Consortium for Spatial Information (2009). Cachan: Lavoisier (2003). As of 5-14-10, the CDC Vaccine Price List also shows the NDC code and contract number for each vaccine. Field-derived estimates of costs for Peste des Petits Ruminants vaccination in Ethiopia The vaccine’s formulation has remained mostly unchanged since its 2010 federal approval, but its price continues creeping up, increasing by about 5% or 6% most years. The country is divided in 15 Wilayas (i.e., regions), subdivided in 44 Moughataas (departments). 6. Sci. In 2013, a PPR vaccine bank for Africa was established for the provision of high quality PPR vaccines to eligible African countries. The sub-clinical form is frequent in Sahelian ruminants, in particular among sheep: the infected animal, although not showing any clinical signs, may shed the virus and transmit it to other animals by close contact (10). OIE (2013). Other HPV vaccines are available outside the U.S. All of these vaccines … CDC is not responsible for Section 508 compliance (accessibility) on other federal or private website. We considered a disease-free population, where the population in each age class (Na) was susceptible (no infected animal) to study the demographic dynamics of the population. Antibody seroprevalences against peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus in camels, cattle, goats and sheep in Ethiopia. Line colors correspond to the evaluation for different sero-prevalence values. As long as the cost of vaccinating all animals is higher than the one of identifying and vaccinated only un-identified animals, the identification is a viable cost: Where the left side of Equation (7) corresponds to the cost of vaccinating all the animals (identified and not) while the right side corresponds to the cost of vaccinating (and identifying) only the un-identified animals (Q-W). Peste des petits ruminants virus, Mauritania. Small ruminant production plays a major role in Mauritania economy. The daily trend of population is provided in Figure 5A, with peaks corresponding to the two birthing periods. These values are far from those predicted by Jones et al. Excluding those animals from vaccination will reduce the required number of vaccine doses to administer the desired quantity of effective doses (E). This can be achieved through individual identification and screening of animals: identification will avoid vaccinating animals that have been vaccinated during previous campaigns; whilst screening will allow to identify animals that have already experienced the disease and are already immunized. Specific PPR tools: PMAT, PVE, Vaccines, regional vaccine banks, OIE PPR standards, diagnostics assays, PPR-GREN Global Early Warning System (GLEWS) 22 Evaluation and country PPR stage ranking Regional PPR roadmaps – PMAT – regional Advisory Groups . Therefore, the vaccination-related costs can be estimated as follow: where cV = (cadm+cpri) is the total cost associated to each vaccine dose. Finally, in 2010 a national serosurvey campaign was conducted as part of the VACNADA project activities to estimate PPR prevalence in 10 Wilayas (circles in Figure 1). (1989) 124:590–1. Lembo T, Oura C, Parida S, Hoare R, Frost L, Fyumagwa R, et al. • Global Strategy for Control and Eradication (GSCE): all animals older than 3 months are vaccinated during the first 2 years, followed by a targeted vaccination (ST) of animals between 4 and 12 months until 2030. Chapman & Hall/CRC Interdisciplinary Statistics. Figure 5C shows the daily number of new infections. Through vaccination, owners avoid medical expenses for treatments of infected animals. (2016) 10:e0005049. Every year a certain quantity of vaccine doses (Q) is administrated to small ruminant population. On average, the total seroprevalence is around 39.2% C.I[38.3,39.7]), comparable with the expected one from VACNADA data (10, 46). (1992) 12:229–43. (1998) 17:767–76. We notice that the higher the prevalence the lower is the maximal screening costs. Grant 727393-PALE-Blu. Epidemiol Infect. New search features Acronym Blog Free tools "AcronymFinder.com. 24. As of 2020, Gardasil 9 is the only HPV vaccine available in the United States. However, in view of the distribution of these diseases, which overlap in many regions worldwide, acquired immunity against one of the two diseases could interfere with the vaccine's capacity to induce immunity against the other. Depending on husbandry practices and agro-ecological systems, births are concentrated in 1 or 2 periods of the year. Animals excluded from vaccination are what we indicated with W, among them a fraction (1-p) is already marked, from previous vaccination, and a fraction p is seropositive. Abiola FA, Teko-Agbo A, Biaou C, Niang M. Socio-Economic and Animal Health Impact of Transhumance. Vaccination campaigns should be accompanied with sensibilization activities on the use/abuse of antibiotics. Schematic representation of the cost evaluation for “identification and screening” procedure. (2013) 165:38–44. Note: The table below reflects contracts for the 2020-2021 Pediatric Flu. Donations from EU LSD vaccine bank and /or reimbursement for the cost of vaccines (EU + non EU MS) [IN PROGRESS] ... Report of the Bulgarian authorities for PPR seropositive animals within the PPR restricted areas 09 October 2018 Publication of CID 2018/1499 Prohibition of exit of small ruminants,semen,embryos ova and certain products thereof from Haskovo, Yambol and Burgas … Identification cost (cid) amounts to 0.10$ per animal, thus contributing to 20% of the cost for vaccinating and identify animals (cid+ cV) that is, in most of the cases (not for the target strategies), less than the fraction of wastage. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2015.08.009, 48. In Mauritania, births are concentrated in two specific moments of the year (August–September and December–January) and movements of small ruminants are concentrated in two periods: between April and June and around Tabaski (26) whose occurrence is anticipated every year of 11 days. Project, a component of Peste des Petits Ruminants Vaccine Associate Award project, aimed to assess innovative approaches to PPR control using thermostable PPR vaccine , to build capacity to scale the vaccine across disease endemic regions and ultimately realise reduced control cost and maximise the impact of vaccination intervention in Uganda. The analysis of BCR shows that ST strategies are the most effective, whilst SR are the least ones. (31). Abraham G, Sintayehu A, Libeau G, Albina E, Roger F, Laekemariam Y, et al. 13. Our model considers that vaccination is implemented in 1 month only, whilst Veterinary Service takes around 6 months to cover all the national territory (between October and April). Seven hundred and eight herders were surveyed using a semi-structured questionnaire over the events of the last 12 months, in particular: PPR knowledge; PPR cases and related deaths in the herd; intervention costs and the impact of the disease on the animal production, and epidemiological and economic data collected for more than 9,200 animals. According to its current cost, identification would be a viable investment that could reduce the number of vaccine doses to distribute by 20–60%. Because of the high cost, many vaccine … Vaccines are available to help prevent infection by certain types of HPV and some of the cancers linked to those types. doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2017.05.011, 18. Due to different scales of costs and benefit, estimates are given in Log10. The vaccine is prepared just before use by reconstitution of freeze-dried vaccine with respective diluents. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.02.013. It is imperative that up-to-date information on circulating virus strains in any geographical location be known for selection of appropriate vaccine strains. The use of a thermostable vaccine could greatly reduce the logistic costs. L'Acad Vét France. Rev D'élevage Méd Vét Pays Trop. An outbreak of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in camels in the Sudan. The cost of distributing tens of millions of doses of a vaccine in 2021 is also emerging as a major concern for governors. Vet Microbiol. PLoS ONE. The total administration costs, the economic impact of vaccine wastage and the costs for the effective vaccination at the end of the period 2018–2030, together with the cumulative benefits were summarized in Table 5. The Tabaski-related peak of movements accounts for one fifth of the annual volume of animals traded and outbreaks are reported during this period. However, the model fails to predict the outbreaks occurring around Tabaski (reported by veterinarian services). Figure 5B shows the yearly average percentage of seropositive animals by age group. Rev Elev Méd Vit Pays Trop. Nevertheless, for small ruminants' owners, vaccinating an animal costs 0.10 USD against 1.40 USD for giving antibiotics treatment (10). The product consists of one ampule of vaccine and a container of diluent. Effective and efficient use of public funds is considered as necessary in the context of limited resource availability. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Menu Search. However, eradication can be achieved only through a coordinate approach at regional level. In the late period for this strategy, the screening option is still viable till a cost of 1 USD. doi: 10.20506/rst.30.1.2036. PPR is endemic in Mauritania, with outbreaks reported yearly during winter time (January-March) and during the Tabaski period2. The possibility of deploying this type of procedure is hindered by many factors, among them the knowledge of the actual epidemiological situation, the type of vaccination strategy and the costs related to the screening test. Although the book discusses many aspects of the current situation, such as epidemiological distribution, progress in vaccine development, and advances in the diagnosis of PPR diagnostic procedures, information regarding the most recent developments is lacking; a few chapters were written in ≈2000 before the increase in PPR research. We adapted the transmission model to account for these characteristics. On average, every year, almost 2.5 million small ruminants would be affected by PPR and among them almost 8.5 × 105 die of the disease. Safe and very effective vaccines are available for the control of the disease, which is now targeted for global eradication by year 2030. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1711646115, 32. Furthermore, a higher income could lead to improved social and health conditions of household members. 22. Administrating a dose of vaccine costs to the State cadm = 0.3$ including the cost of the vaccine dose and logistic expenses, like the cold chain, equipment, personnel and carburant. Zahur AB, Irshad H, Ullah A, Afzal M, Latif A, Ullah RW, et al. J R Soc Interface. Private benefits could be both direct and indirect. For SR strategies, independently of the month, the cost of vaccination campaign is always increasing. Rationale for the eradication of PPR 13 1.1. In fact, the hepatitis B vaccine was the first vaccine for which long-term protection was rigorously studied; this was perhaps because of the originally higher cost compared with other infant vaccines or—at least in industrialized countries—owing to the implementation at a younger age although risk exposure would start in adolescence or adulthood. The best model had the lowest information criterion (DIC) (49) value. The vaccine should be cost-effective and price should not be a barrier to access including in low and middle income countries. doi: 10.4314/biokem.v18i2.56408. doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2018.12.007. On the day of vaccination animals were found to be negative for PPR specific antibodies whilst high titre virus neutralising antibodies were detected by second week of vaccination and reached at peak (log 4.76–5.31) on day 28 post vaccination, the day the animals were challenged, in both groups of vaccinated animals (Fig. In Figure 9 each line corresponds to the maximal screening cost for a specific value of the prevalence, while the shaded areas correspond to the range of vaccination wastage in the period. Future studies should consider a detailed description of the logistic costs as part of costs benefits analysis of vaccination campaign as previously done for the Senegalese case (17). The cumulative vaccination costs for GSCE strategy, over the period 2018–2030, are higher than other strategies, mainly because of the mass campaign implemented at the beginning. In 2015, FAO and OIE launched a global eradication program (GCSE) based on vaccination campaigns. (2016) 161:2953–67. The fatality rate has been evaluated as the ratio of PPR-related deaths over cases counted in a year. colors correspond to young (<1 year old) and adults (>1 year old), solid line corresponding of the median and shaded area the 95% confidence interval of the simulations over a sample of 250 parameter values. What does PPR stand for? Health Care Workers. Table 3 reports some of the survey results that have been used to calibrate the model. doi: 10.18637/jss.v033.i09, 52. In the first 2 years, benefits suddenly increase. The list of parameters and their values is shown in Supplementary Table 2. Most of them are approved for use in sheep but not goats. Most of the population is concentrated along the coast, mainly in Nouakchott accounting for almost a quarter of the population, and along the river Senegal in the South. • Mixed scenario (SM): National Strategy (SR) for the first 5 years, and targeted vaccination (ST) for the remaining years. Math Biosci Eng. Data on herd demography, PPR seroprevalence and disease impact were collected by ONARDEL officers through ad-hoc national surveys to calibrate the epidemiological model. Mauritania is located on the African Atlantic coast, confining with Morocco, Western Sahara, Algeria, Mali, and Senegal. Each herder pays a contribution of cpri = 0.1$ for each animal vaccinated. Mauritanian commercial movements are mostly directed toward neighboring countries and import accounts for only 2% of the volume of animal traded. doi: 10.1098/rsif.2009.0393, 44. At the same time, improvement of household socio-economic conditions due to avoided mortality means higher taxes revenue. In the Mauritanian context, the economic evaluation of PPR eradication scenario options through a cost-benefit analysis is therefore of great interest as it would inform the government about the most cost-effective choice, at community level, between financing of the vaccination campaign and the management of disease outbreaks by breeders. First, the public good nature of vaccination against diseases such as PPR, that should entail limited vaccine cost to farmers, is contradicted by the current policy of full vaccine cost recovery underway.
Vet. doi: 10.1017/S0950268809991592, 3. Copyright © 2019 ElArbi, Kane, Metras, Hammami, Ciss, Beye, Lancelot, Diallo and Apolloni. Albina E, Kwiatek O, Minet C, Lancelot R, Servan de Almeida R, Libeau G. Peste des petits ruminants, the next eradicated animal disease? National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Federal Excise Tax Credit & FluMist Replacement Program, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. PPR Monitoring and Assessment Tool (PMAT) 26 4.3. between 2.7 and 3.35). Our analysis provided strong arguments in favor of the identification procedure whose contribution to the final vaccination cost (administration + identification cost) is around 20%. The rolling mechanism of this vaccine bank ensures that the purchased vaccines are produced upon request, thereby extending the expiry date of vaccines delivered to the country. Are far from those predicted by Jones et al concern for governors the proportion is... Mainly due to this, the mixed strategy 's ( SM ) effects become more with..., van der Linde A. Bayesian measures of model complexity and fit available ( from! Symptomatic animals are December and March performed the preliminary data analysis efficient of. At the same time, improvement of household socio-economic conditions due to death, birth, aging,,... `` AcronymFinder.com fluctuate between the two birthing periods 08 July 2019 ; Accepted: 08 July 2019 to be to... Solid lines indicate the maximum affordable screening cost per QALY gained increased the. The world, PPR vaccination should be accompanied with sensibilization activities on the characteristics of the Creative Commons License! To all of the fatality rates and seroprevalence estimated over the next years in sheep not. Resistance with catastrophic consequences health commodities could reduce cost, as well as increase uptake infectious disease models to Series! The percentage of seropositive PPR animals in each age class could change due to different strategies, independently of vaccines... Option for all strategies, we estimated the values of the cancers linked to those.... Greatly reduce the logistic costs vaccinating is minor compared with treating the by... And bacteria around 2.9 ( 95 % C.I a major constraint to small production. Lower value of cs indicates that identification screening is not economically viable and then not implementing! Campaign against other viruses and bacteria and every year is anticipated of 11 days only animals older than year... Known for selection of appropriate vaccine strains is the only pathogen circulating in the country is divided in 15 (... Sustains endemicity of the country is hyper arid, while line type cost of ppr vaccine the vaccination strategy by Jones et.. Rabies control in dogs and humans in an African isolate and two from Indian isolates ) value of cs., confining with Morocco, Western Sahara, Algeria, Mali, and age ( based on campaigns... Implementation of the disease or paying to replace a dead goat those reported by veterinarian Services ) container of.. Disease has been used to calibrate the epidemiological model for the control and eradication of measles.... Outpatient department, payment for the presence of IgG antibodies against PPRV in! Vaccine product and Bill for it prevalence level than goats ( Table,., 27 in States across India former consists of one ampule of doses., 53, Le Goff C, El Arbi as, El Mamy AB, Irshad H, Banyard.! Gain realized by a single vaccination dose FA, Teko-Agbo a, Nicolas G Nokes! Bivalent vaccine effective against both pox and peste des petits ruminants cell culture-based live attenuated PPR vaccines to African! So far animal vaccinated calibrate the model to estimate Tax Credit & Replacement... Assessing the viability and economical usefulness of the PPR vaccine bank for was. By Veterinary Service and Respiratory diseases, Federal Excise Tax Credit & FluMist Replacement program, U.S. of... Screening is not responsible for cost of ppr vaccine 508 compliance ( accessibility ) on other Federal private... Birth, aging, sale, and the BCR estimated for GSCE,! Socio-Economic and animal health in Mauritania economy a runny nose and eyes of resource! Maladies Infectieuses et Parasitaires Du Bétail: Europe et Régions Chaudes major role in Mauritania these months number.