Consider again and again what you are undertaking, and what strength you have for it; and be sure you remember, not how long was Caesar's life, but how short was his reign.   |   29.02.16 Will you never understand that you have to decide whether those men who performed that action are homicides or assertors of freedom? As for myself, if I always had somebody to trust with them, I should send you as many as three an hour. George Bell and Sons. These letters, in translation, are certainly useful in making a contemporary reader familiar with him, although few seem greatly interested in that at present [1].   [Rome, late in March or early in April, 43 B.C.]. ——— M. Tullius Cicero, Epistulae ad Atticum 2 vols. They were sent to deliver to Antonius certain definite instructions in accordance with the vote of the Senate, and when he failed to comply with any single one of them, they had the impudence to bring back certain insufferable demands from him to us. [Formiae, February 10th, 49 B.C.]. All promise me the aid of themselves, their friends, clients, freedmen, slaves, and, finally, of their money. Aemilius Paulus, C. Claudius C. Claudius. And yet, though my wishes are stronger than my hopes, even now there is a residue of hope to be found in your valour. Am I embarrassing you? As things have gone so far, it would seem that we have been delivered, not from a tyranny, but from a tyrant. Caius Cassius, a man of that family which could not endure, I will not say the domination, but even the power of any individual,- he, I suppose, was in need of me to instigate him? An XML version of this text is available for download, r.p.c., C. Iulius Caesar III. Save for fulfilling the duty I owed to our affection, I could not help asking myself: "What reason have you for your journey here, seer?" But all that left me unmoved; I had better things to think about. If we have both of you, we shall think we have the Republic here too. - Volume 33 Issue 5-6 - J. Jackson To His Brother Quintus. "What of you, Brutus?" Not in Library. If they are parricides, why are they always named by you, both in this assembly and before the Roman people, with a view to do them honour?   [Rome, shortly after June 8th, 43 B.C.]. Coss., D. r. p. ger. B.C. 63. Letters to Atticus, with an English translation by E.O. A lively introduction sets out the historical context, and the nature of the letters and Cicero's correspondents. Claudius Marcellus, Servius Sulpicius Letters to Atticus Author: . 3 Our friends are terribly alarmed about us; and although they are fully assured of your good faith, still they are obsessed by the reflection that a mass of veterans can be more easily driven in any direction by anybody else than held in check by you. C. Iulius Caesar Octavianus, abd. Farewell. What a pitiful state of affairs! L  I expect you must be just a little ashamed of yourself now that this is the third letter that has caught you before you have sent me a single leaf or even a line. And even if they grant our request, it will not, I fancy, prevent us being declared public enemies or banned as outlaws in the near future. As I write these words, thanks to the villainy and shiftiness of Lepidus, the war is really serious. When I said that they should have called the Senate, they should have roused the people to action with greater vigour, and they should have taken over the whole conduct of affairs, your friend Servilia exclaimed: "Well, I never heard the like!" In the following passage, Cicero defends himself against the charge of inciting the conspiracy against Caesar. a man whom I should not have ventured even to advise. But that crazy and desperate fellow [Antonius], far more of a scoundrel too than he of whom you said "the prince of scoundrels has been slain", is bent on starting a massacre, and accuses me of having instigated the assassination of Caesar, simply and solely with the object of inciting the veterans against me - a danger that has no terrors for me, provided only it adds to my reputation by giving it a share in the glory of your achievement. However, let me discuss them in due order. Certainly to me who love you, it will be a pleasure, and for the future when you send home a bundle of letters, remember me, and I'll bless you. If Caesar has conquered, expect me to return quickly. . B.C. For the swordsman is bent on bloodshed, and imagined that he would make a beginning of it with me on the 19th of September, on which day he had turned up ready primed, after studying his speech for several days at the villa of Metellus. I am myself more hopeful about it, now that it has been so brilliantly administered by my dear Dolabella. Coss., C. But if those burdens are too heavy for you, pause to think, lest your arrival may happen at a most unfavourable moment. B.C. Antium, June 7th, 44 B.C.]. M. 52 . It will be your duty to explain to me, when you arrive here safe and sound, whether the spectre of you is at my command to come up as soon as the whim has taken me to think about you - and not only about you, who always occupy my inmost heart, but suppose I begin thinking about the Isle of Britain, will the image of that wing its way to my consciousness?   [Cyprus, June 13th, 43 B.C.]. B.C. Our friend M.Brutus indeed has won extraordinary distinction; his achievements have been so substantial and so unexpected that, welcome as they are in themselves, their brilliance has been enhanced by their rapidity. Visit our new site This request was rejected by Antonius. Neither Piso, therefore, who was the first to assail him without finding anybody to back him up, nor I, who did the same a month afterwards, nor P.Servilius, who immediately followed us, are allowed to enter the Senate with safety. Farewell. Coss., M. Our old regiment of loyalists is warm in its zeal and attachment to me. You were also a protection to me in the days of my deepest gloom. Letters to Atticus, with an English translation by E.O. Our friend Pansa set out in military uniform on December the 30th, so that even the man in the street might grasp the fact which you had lately begun to question - that "the good must be chosen for its own sake." get custom paper. And so, although your letter has had its effect, yet what recommends him a great deal more is that I have come fully to see and understand his kindly feelings for yourself. As to Brutus, because he is nearer, the reports about him appear to be more trustworthy. Pedius, mort., P. Ventidius. For that mischief in the city was spreading, and daily gaining such strength, that for my own part I began to despair of the city and of public order in it. 3 This much, however, we would have you consider yourself - how far it is to be tolerated that praetors should not be allowed in the interests of harmony and liberty to waive by public announcement some of their own rights, without being threatened with armed violence by the consul. What everybody is saying however, I suppose because they wish it, is that you are in Syria, and in command of forces. 68 Wikisource: Epistulae ad Quintum Fratrem. . Winstedt by Cicero, Marcus Tullius; Winstedt, Eric Otto. PDF of public domain Loeb edition in Latin and English. In fact I found a ship breaking up, or rather already in wreckage. [12.12] Cassius, proconsul, to M.Cicero And even so they would cause me less inconvenience if they would only allow me some reasonable time for writing; but they come ready dressed for travelling, and tell me that their mates are waiting for them at the gate. You, when a boy, sought me out, while I felt that you would always be a source of distinction to me. ORATORIA. Click anywhere in the L  With what enthusiasm I defended your political position, both in the Senate and before the people, I prefer that you should learn from your friends rather than from myself. See key to translations for an explanation of the format. Papius Piso, M. valerius Messalla. and do you think that those men were instigated by my authority rather than by their affection for the republic? I urge this upon you so strongly that I feel all my prospects depend upon it. Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License. Mind you keep your health and your affection for me. [12.6] Cicero to Cassius In this formula the words "within this year" are not usually added; so even if it is now two or three years since, bewitched by the blandishments of Pleasure, you sent a notice of divorce to Virtue, I am free to act as I like. And not a soul has ever rightly found fault with this opinion of ours, except those who think it better that the commonwealth should be utterly destroyed than survive in an impaired and enfeebled condition. Our armies of course we can trust; but though everything should go on happily (and I hope everything will), even so it is of great importance that you should come here. Coss., C. There you have the leaders of public policy; it would be an insignificant number, even if all were going well; what do you think of it in these days of despair ? B.C. In truth, all good men, as far as it depended on them, bore a part in the slaying of Caesar. . . You must, therefore, convince yourself that the best hope of the Republic lies in you and your forces. Magister Equitum, Am. Some did not know how to contrive it, some had not courage for it, some had no opportunity,- every one had the inclination. You must know that I have started for Syria to join the generals L.Murcus and Q.Crispus. [15.15] M.Cicero to C.Cassius Dated the 7th of March, from camp at Tarichea. 2 But as to the matter that I discussed at considerable length in the Senate, and as to what I said at the public meeting, I should be glad if you would redeem the pledge I gave. The people don't care a straw, since there is no doubt as to his cremation. For perhaps are you are incapable of understanding the dilemma that faces you. how I should like to know whether you read all this with an anxious mind or a mind at ease! It was not unnatural, indeed, that he should feel it grievously. Well, yours is one of pleasure, but mine troubles me, because I am ashamed of being a slave. But for all that you are responsible; and now that it is past and done with, I only wish I knew what advice to give you. But more of this and of much else, when we meet soon. On which account the republic owes him even a larger debt of gratitude, because he preferred the liberty of the Roman people to the friendship of one man, and because he preferred overthrowing arbitrary power to sharing it. We are told by letter that a large number of veterans have already assembled at Rome, and that as the Kalends of June approach, the number will be much larger. Coss., C. 5 Since writing this letter I have been told that Dolabella and his forces have arrived in Cilicia. After that, I kept quiet. But if our enemies are defeated (and I hope so) before you arrive, even so your influence will help the Republic to lift up her head, and be established on some tolerably firm basis. 2 And yet, if I am not mistaken, the present position is such that the ultimate issue of the whole war depends apparently upon D.Brutus; if once he succeeds, as we hope he will, in breaking out of Mutina, it looks as if there would be nothing left of the war. These requests I make of you not only in the name of the Republic, which has always been most precious to you, but also in that of our friendship, which I am sure counts for very much with you. Nobody can play us false but yourself, and that is obviously foreign to your high character and integrity; but nobody else has the means of deceiving us; for it is you, and you alone, that we have trusted and shall continue to trust. I should write at greater length if I knew the circumstances of the case. As for ourselves, were we urged by other considerations to wish to fan the flame of civil war, your letter would have no effect whatever; for the man who threatens has no authority among free men. That one pre-eminent satisfaction, doubtless, which consists in seeing you, cannot be enjoyed by letter; the other, which consists in congratulating you, is less satisfying, it is true, than if I were to do so with my eyes upon your face; still I have done so before, and I do so now, and congratulate you not only on the magnificence of your achievements, but also on their timeliness, since on your departure from your province you were honourably accompanied by its praise, which was as unqualified as its gratitude. For it seemed that you not only back me up - that you have always done, both for my sake, and the sake of the Republic - but also that you have shouldered a burden of anxiety, and feel seriously perturbed about me. L  We trust that you are well. As to what remains, I prefer that you should consult your own heart, rather than listen to any words of mine. Coss., L. Again our friend Hirtius is at Claterna, and Caesar at Forum Cornelium, each of them with an army that can be trusted, while, at Rome, Pansa has collected strong forces by means of an Italian levy. All men, therefore, are guilty as far as this goes. L  If you are well, that is good; I and my army are well. [15.17] M.Cicero to C.Cassius Cassius, as tribune of the plebs, supported Pompeius against Caesar. That is why our every hope lies in you; and if your only object in keeping away is to be in a safe place, there is no hope even in you. When those gallant officers and admirable citizens heard what was going on in Rome, they handed their armies over to me, and are themselves administering the affairs of the State side by side with me, and with the utmost resolution. 3 For these reasons I beg you to look after my men, if you are aware of their amazing services to the Republic, and so to manage matters that not one of them may regret having set the call of the Republic above the love of loot and rapine. 50 [12.9] Cicero to Cassius Philippus. Lentulus replied that Pompeius must first come to Picenum. 2 There is nothing certain so far about Spain, indeed no news at all. There is no success so great that the people of Rome do not deem you capable of achieving, yes, and of maintaining. 59 I shall do my utmost to let you have early news of what I have been able to do. For thus he spoke:- "Marcus Brutus, whom I name to do him honour, holding aloft his bloody dagger, called upon Cicero, from which it must be understood that he was privy to the action." For every other reason also I am emphatically of opinion that you should hasten to Rome. [12.13] C.Cassius, quaestor, to M.Cicero B.C. And we do not all throw our bodies in the way! 2 I am glad that our friend Pansa was sped on his way by universal goodwill when he left the city in military uniform, and that not only on my own account, but also, most assuredly, on that of all our friends. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus, L Marcius   [Rome, early in July, 43 B.C.]. I confess that they, if they be not deliverers of the Roman people and saviours of the republic, are worse than assassins, worse than homicides, worse even than parricides: since it is a more atrocious thing to murder the father of one's country, than one's own father. [12.4] Cicero to Cassius During the course of the civil war between Caesar and Pompeius, Cassius acted as commander of part of Pompeius' fleet. 1908-1909. The result is that people are thronging round me, and for the first time, by supporting a really sound measure, I find myself a popular hero. Coss., Cn. L  The letter-carriers you employ are behaving preposterously - not that they are lacking in civility to me, but, all the same, when they leave me they demand a letter from me, but when they come to me they bring no letter with them. I hope you will forgive my having acted against the wishes of your mother-in-law [Servilia]. Is it that she obeys him dead, whom she could not brook alive? This work is licensed under a Vatinius. Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares (English) [genre: prose] [Cic. As to myself indeed he had no hesitation in declaring that all you had done and Cannutius was doing was the result of my advice. All this, however, one can put up with; what is not endurable is that a man [Philippus] can be found to think that his son will be consul in the year that belongs to you and Brutus, and for that reason makes a parade of being our brigand's very humble servant. Claudius Pulcher. The following extracts from letters to Atticus show Cicero and Cassius awaiting the outcome of Caesar's invasion of Italy. Perseus provides credit for all accepted Dated June 13th. Coss., L. 47 Responsibility by E. O. Winstedt. L  Your friend [Antonius] gives more rein to his insanity every day; to begin with, he has had the statue, which he set up on the rostra, inscribed with the words "To the Father, for his glorious services," so that you are condemned not only as assassins, but now as parricides also. W. S. Watt, Ciceronis Epistulae ad Atticum I–VIII (Oxford Classical Text, 1965). And yet to whom am I talking? 3 But of this later on. 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